Anichkov Palace in St. Petersburg

sights

Anichkov Palace is the oldest building on Nevsky Prospekt that has survived to this day, one of the ten imperial palaces in St. Petersburg. This building has a special destiny - it was often given, and this gift was either as a sign of love or for a wedding.

History of construction and reconstruction

In 1808, Alexander I presented the palace to his sister Ekaterina Pavlovna in connection with the upcoming marriage to Prince Georg of Oldenburg. The palace was again rebuilt inside according to the project of arch. L. Ruska in 1809-1812

In 1864-1866, serious alterations were carried out in the palace for the stay of the heir to the throne, Tsarevich Nikolai Alexandrovich, and after his early death, Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich and his wife. During the reign of Alexander III, the Anichkov Palace was in fact the imperial residence, and after the death of the emperor and until the October Revolution, it was the residence of the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

The territory between Sadovaya Street and Fontanka along Nevsky Prospekt, where the Anichkov Palace is now located, belonged to A. M. Devier, the first police chief of St. Petersburg, at the beginning of the 18th century. In 1727 he was sent into exile, the land was given to the timber merchant D. L. Lukyanov. In his yard, closer to the Fontanka, by 1738 the regimental yard of the Preobrazhensky regiment was located. The property of Dmitry Lukyanov is mentioned in the report of the Commission on Buildings, which in 1738 recommended building up this section of Nevsky Prospekt with stone philistine houses.

The fate of this territory was drastically changed by the palace coup on November 25, 1741, when the daughter of Peter I, Elizabeth, ascended the throne. She came to power with the help of the Transfiguration. In memory of this, she ordered to build her own palace on the site of their regimental court. Officially, it was built for Elizaveta Petrovna. But it was no secret to anyone that her favorite, Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky, would live in the palace.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

The project of the imperial palace in 1741 was drawn up by M.G. Zemtsov, who also began construction. The first order for the construction of the architect was issued by the quartermaster general Shargorodsky on April 6, 1742 [4, p. 28]. Since 1743, after Zemtsov's death, the construction was carried out by GD Dmitriev's "architecture gezel". He managed to bring the walls of the building only up to the cornice, having died in 1746. Completed the construction of the Anichkov Palace by F.B. Rastrelli.

Anichkov is the first palace on Nevsky Prospekt. It got its name from the nearby Anichkov Bridge. Unlike other buildings on the avenue, the main facade is not facing towards it. This location of the building clearly shows that in the early 1740s, Nevsky Prospect was not yet perceived as the main street of the city.

The main side of the building faces the Fontanka, at the time of the construction of the palace - the border of the city. Many guests arrived here by waterway. On the side of the river, a Havanese was dug, where visitors left their rowing and sailing ships. Along the bank of the Fontanka, according to the idea of ​​Grigory Dmitriev, open galleries were arranged.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

The composition of the building consisted of three-story central and side buildings, which housed the main double-height halls, with lower two-story volumes connecting them. Such a different number of storeys of the Anichkov Palace is typical for the "pre-Rastrelli" baroque.

Another feature of the early Baroque, which manifested itself in the facade of the Anichkov Palace, was the use of pilasters, while the columns were used only on the main portico. At the same time, the building is equipped with a much larger volume of sculptures and other decorative elements than the buildings of the Petrine Baroque era.

The building from the side of Nevsky Prospekt was crowned with the dome of the Church of the Resurrection of Christ. In 1746, a cross was installed above the church dome, and a star (a ball with 43 rays) was placed on the other. For the temple, Rastrelli designed a three-tiered gilded iconostasis (transferred to the Vladimir Cathedral). The house church of the Anichkov Palace was consecrated on March 17, 1751.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace in Tsarist times

The building was completed in 1756. In 1771, the writer A.P. Sumarokov, who served as his adjutant, lived with Count Razumovsky. In the same year, the count died, the Anichkov Palace passed into the possession of his brother, the president of the Academy of Sciences, Count Kirill Grigoryevich Razumovsky.

In 1775, the estate was rented by the Petersburg merchants, who staged a big masquerade in the palace. This event was attended by about 2500 people.

The Anichkov Palace was bought from Razumovsky in 1776 by the treasury, after which Catherine II presented the estate to Count G.A.Potyomkin. For him, the palace was rebuilt in 1776-1778 according to the project of I. Ye. Starov. Since then, the palace has a classic, not a baroque look. During the restructuring, the height of the building was leveled, the Havanese were filled up, the galleries along the Fontanka were dismantled, and the garden was redesigned.

In 1779, a gallery was created in the garden, planted with tropical plants. In the gallery, the prince arranged masquerades, which were played by up to a hundred musicians. Later the premises were rented by the Italian Musical Society. In 1780, such a masquerade was attended by Empress Catherine II, Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich and his wife, Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna. From 1786 to 1790 the gallery was rented by the entrepreneur Joseph Lyon. In 1786, a new musical instrument, the grand piano, was demonstrated here.

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Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Prince Potemkin sold the Anichkov Palace to the merchant Shemyakin. Having decided that it was not proper to refuse from the royal gifts, Catherine II again bought the palace and gave it to Potemkin. However, in 1785 the estate was sold again, this time to the treasury.

In 1794, the Office of His Imperial Majesty was placed in the building. Anichkov Palace began to be used as the personal office of the king. For new purposes, the building was replanned according to the project of Yegor Timofeevich Sokolov. In 1795, in one of the pavilions of the palace, the book collection of Joseph Załuski was temporarily stored, which became the basis for the creation of the Public Library. In 1799, the western part of the estate was transferred to the Theater Directorate.

According to the project of the architect D. Quarenghi in 1803-1805, shopping arcades were built on the territory of the main courtyard. An open arcade ran along their first tier. Initially, the rows consisted of two angular buildings connected by an open colonnade. The territory of the estate on the side of Sadovaya Street was also "cut down". A building for the Public Library was built here. One of the garden pavilions was converted for Italian theater performances.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

In 1809, Alexander I presented the Anichkov Palace to his sister, Grand Duchess Ekaterina Pavlovna. The palace was presented to her on the occasion of her marriage to Prince George of Oldenburg. For their family, the building was rebuilt by L. Ruska. The Ballroom and the Great Dining Room have remained from his work to this day. Ruska adapted the shopping arcade for the needs of the Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty, who moved here from the premises of the palace. At the same time, the architect added buildings from the western side to the vyvvyh Torgovye Rows. Probably, at the same time, a fence with a gate was built between the Cabinet and the palace.

Georg Oldenburgsky died in 1812, and in 1816, Ekaterina Pavlovna married Crown Prince Wilhelm of Württemberg and left for the homeland of her new husband. Before leaving, the palace was sold to the treasury for 2 rubles.

Since the 1810s, the poet V.A.Zhukovsky lived in the Anichkov Palace. He was the tutor of the heir to the throne, the future Emperor Alexander II. Here A. Pushkin read the finished poem "Ruslan and Lyudmila" to Zhukovsky.

In 1817, Alexander I presented the Anichkov Palace to his brother, Grand Duke Nikolai Pavlovich (future Emperor Nicholas I) for the upcoming wedding. For the new owner, the building had to be rebuilt again, which was what K. Rossi was doing in 1817-1820. He built a Service building, two garden pavilions, redesigned the garden (with the participation of A.A. Menelas and I.A.Ivanov).

The estate was included in the unified ensemble of Theater Square (now Ostrovsky Square) designed by Rossi. In 1818, he fenced off the estate from Rossi Square with a cast-iron grate. The project for the redevelopment of the area according to the drawings of Rossi was carried out somewhat later. And then, during the restructuring of the Anichkov Palace, the former territory of the manor garden was simply put in order. It was cleared of unnecessary temporary structures.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

In the Anichkov Palace, Karl Rossi redesigned the Dance Hall, the Music Room, the Divan Room, the Study, the Boudoir, and the bedrooms. The plafonds were repainted in 17 halls, the walls were covered with damask, satin and velvet. In other rooms, the walls were painted in marble, new stoves, fireplaces, furniture, chandeliers, sconces and floor lamps were installed. Absolutely all interior items were made according to Rossi's drawings. As a result, the interiors of the Anichkov Palace became a single integral ensemble.

The Grand Duke Nikolai Pavlovich was extremely pleased with the work in the Anichkov Palace of the architect Rossi. In 1825 he became emperor, and the next year he gave the Anichkov Palace the status of imperial. He continued to live here for months. The palace was called "His Imperial Majesty's own".

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna was born here in 1822. In 1830, a large costume ball was held in the Anichkov Palace on the occasion of the conclusion of peace with Turkey. It was under Nicholas I that balls were held in the Anichkov Palace, which A.S. Pushkin did not like so much, and which his wife Natalya Nikolaevna loved so much. In April 1838, a lottery was held here, as a prize in which there was a painting by K. P. Bryullov “V. A. Zhukovsky. The proceeds from the lottery went to ransom the serf Taras Shevchenko.

The next owner of the Anichkov Palace in 1841 was Grand Duke Alexander Anikolaevich (future Alexander II). In 1853, water supply and sewerage systems were installed here. In 1855, the palace began to be called Nikolaevsky.

After the death of Nicholas I in the 1855-1860s, the estate was shared by the Dowager Empress Alexandra Feodorovna and the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich, who had their own palace built.

In 1865, the architect Zhibert worked on the Anichkov Palace for the heir to the throne, the son of Alexander II, Grand Duke Nikolai Alexandrovich. But Nikolai Alexandrovich died unexpectedly. In 1866, the palace became the residence of the Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich, the future Alexander III. At the same time, the wedding of the Grand Duke and the Danish princess Dagmara (future Empress Maria Feodorovna) took place here. In 1868-1875, IA Monighetti worked on the interiors of the palace. Alexander III often lived in the Anichkov Palace, where he spent not only his personal time, but also was engaged in state affairs.

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Since 1875, Anichkov Garden has been open for children to walk with their parents or nannies.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

The son of Alexander III, the future Emperor Nicholas II, spent his childhood in the Anichkov Palace. In 1874-1875, K. K. Rakhau made a new front entrance in the form of an arcade and a winter garden above it. In 1886, the architect M.E. Messmacher worked in the Anichkov Palace. In 1885-1886, the arcade of the first floor of the Cabinet building was laid (architect N. A. Schildknecht).

The last owner of the estate was the mother of Nicholas II, Empress Maria Feodorovna. She was shown cinematography here in 1897. Since 1899, a school for the children of employees worked at the Anichkov Palace.

In 1914, the wedding of the niece of Nicholas II, Grand Duchess Irina Alexandrovna and Prince FF Yusupov, took place in the church of the Anichkov Palace.

In the building of the Cabinet of E. I. V. in 1915-1916 the architect A. Ya. Beloborodov arranged a ceremonial hall in neoclassical forms.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace in Soviet times

Immediately after the revolution, Anichkov Palace was nationalized. It housed the Ministry of Food. In 1918-1935, the city museum worked in the palace. It is the city, that is, Moscow, and other cities, not just Leningrad. The museum retained the imperial setting and occupied several buildings along the Fontanka. Its director was the architect L. A. Ilyin, the deputy director was the historian of architecture V. Ya. Kurbatov. Since 1918, the Department of Communal and Social Hygiene and the library of the City Museum have worked in the buildings of the Cabinet. In 1926, the domes of the house church were removed for melting. In 1928, the museum was closed, all property was gradually sold out.

In 1937, on the initiative of S.M. Kirov, the Palace of Pioneers, the largest in the USSR, was opened here. For this, in 1936-1937, Anichkov Palace was reconstructed according to the project of architects A.I. Gegello and D.L. Krichevsky. They enclosed the Cabinet buildings in a square. It was then that two rooms of the Anichkov Palace were painted by masters from Palekh based on the motives of the works of A.S. Pushkin and A.M. Gorky. More than a hundred children's circles have been opened. Especially famous was the chess one, which was attended by Viktor Korchnoi, Boris Spassky, Mark Taimanov. Stanislav Zhuk, Lev Dodin, Sergey Yursky, Alisa Freindlikh, Lev Lurie, Elena Obraztsova went to the Palace of Pioneers.

Already in September 1941, an artillery shell hit the main building of the Anichkov Palace, almost completely destroying the winter garden. A military field hospital was located in the estate buildings. He worked here for almost a year and a half. Despite this, the Palace of Pioneers did not stop working during the entire blockade. On June 28, 1942, a gala evening of graduates of Leningrad schools was held here. By 1945, the palace complex was restored.

A birch tree planted by cosmonauts German Titov and Vladimir Komarov grows in front of the main building of the Anichkov Palace.

In 1990, the Palace of Pioneers was transformed into the Palace of Youth Creativity. In 1998, the restoration of the fence of the Anichkov Garden was carried out.

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Anichkov Palace Archiphoto, Belimov-Gushchin, Palace, Interior, St. Petersburg, Anichkov Palace, Dlinnopost

Features of the interiors of the Anichkov Palace

Numerous architects contributed to the formation of the ensemble of interiors, creating a unique look, changing, adding, reworking. Architects Zemtsov, Dmitriev, Rastrelli renovated and decorated the palace.

The facade was decorated with Italian marble, onyx and travertine (ancient finishing stone), stucco and marble statues, and gilded decorations.

Interior living room

Furniture and wall decoration play the main role in the decoration of the interiors of the Anichkov Palace. Products made of crystal, glass, porcelain, jasper create coziness and a unique flavor of the halls. Decorates the interior with greenery in pots and in specially designated places throughout the room.

Halls of the palace

There are several halls in the palace:

  • Dance hall.
  • Large dining room.
  • Winter Garden.
  • Raspberry living room.
  • Library.
  • Alexandra Feodorovna's bedchamber.
  • Yellow living room.
  • White living room.
  • Study of Alexandra Feodorovna.

Alexandra Feodorovna's study

The furnishings are arranged according to the taste of the hostess, a kind but capricious woman. A stay-at-home, Alexandra Feodorovna rested here, read, drank tea with her husband, invited selected guests to the table.

A cozy living room is filled with various furniture. The walls of the office are upholstered in green fabric, on the floor there is a soft carpet decorated with a floral pattern. In the center of the ceiling vault of the Cabinet there is a sky with stars, along the edges there are flying figures of twelve months of the year. The windows are draped with fringed white satin curtains.

To heat the office, a marble stove was installed, which was decorated with vases, figurines, lamps. The study was illuminated by elegant oil lamps. The walls are decorated with paintings in gilded frames.

The working table and the couch, an elegant candlestick, a mirror and flower pots, a piano with sheet music and a screen decorated with paintings from the Iliad spoke of the habits and tastes of the Cabinet mistress. The interior decoration has a lot of ornamental plants in vases, pots, special flower beds.

Stairs

Alexandra Feodorovna's bedchamber

The Empress's bedchamber was used as a living room, intended for intimate receptions of people close to the hostess. Here the empress rested, received guests and "ate alone." In the Bedroom, the family confessed.

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The walls of the Bedchamber are draped in blue velvet, embellished with silk fringes with tassels. Gripped from above by wooden rosettes, the fabric lies on the wall in free flowing folds, creating an impression of splendor. Carved doors are decorated with gilding and bronze handles. The ceiling has a mirrored vault and richly gilded floral ornaments.

White marble fireplace with gilded bronze details. On the mantelpiece is a gilded clock under a glass cover. On the wall opposite the fireplace, at the height of the room, there is a mirror in a gilded frame. The curtains on the windows are made of green taffeta, the window sills are faced with polished white French marble. The bedroom was illuminated by bronze chandeliers in the shape of a flat bowl.

In the center of the Bedchamber is a bed covered with a blue velvet and satin bedspread. A carved crown crowned the velvet curtain of the bed. Six pillows are stuffed with eider down, light and not afraid of water. The sofas and armchairs upholstered in blue velvet gleam.

On the dressing tables - a jug and a bowl for bread made of cut glass; teapot, sugar bowl, coffee pot made of pure gold. On a carved table made of Karelian birch, there are candlesticks, scissors, and toothbrushes. By the window there is a jasper vase on a pedestal. The interior decoration is crowned with a carpet with flowers on a blue background.

Dew decoration

Yellow living room

The yellow living room is a spacious room with four windows. The furniture is symmetrically arranged along the walls, draped with yellow embossed velvet. The windows are draped in white satin folded in vertical folds. On the ceiling there are paintings on antique subjects. Mirrors in carved gilded frames with floral ornaments. The living room doors are decorated with trims with gilded bronze inserts.

On two marble fireplaces there are mirrors in carved gilded frames, miniature gilded porcelain vases. A crystal chandelier with bronze horns hangs in the center of the room. The set of two sofas and twelve armchairs is decorated with gilded bronze overlays. Slightly curved thin legs emphasize the elegance of the furniture. Parquet of four types of wood ennobled the interior. Dinner parties and lunches, balls, masquerades were held here.

Fretwork on the ceiling

White living room

The white drawing-room is the grand drawing-room. The walls are covered without folds with white silk fabric with bouquets. The ceiling with gilded relief elements is painted with paintings on antique themes. The polished doors are decorated with gilded bronze ornaments. The windows are draped with curtains of the same fabric as the walls. In the piers between the windows there are mirrors in carved gilded frames.

A marble fireplace with a bronze clock adorns the bas-relief of Alexander the Great. Carved walnut furniture and colored parquet flooring make the living room cozy and solemn. Here they received close guests, baptized children. Under the arches of the White Living Room, Vasily Andreevich Zhukovsky presented Pushkin with his portrait with the inscription: "To the winner a student from a defeated teacher."

In the Winter Garden there is an abundance of plants for which special flower beds have been created. Emerald foliage and an abundance of roses, elegant Chinese vases, products from the Ural gems delight the eye. Sculptures of ancient characters are hidden among exotic plants.

Preserved interior

The library is the original room. Two-tiered octagonal hall with niches for a fireplace and stairs. Wall decoration with light oak, carved balcony create coziness and comfort.

Anichkov Palace Museum and excursions

The history museum staff conduct sightseeing tours of the palace. An independent visit to the palace is impossible, it can only be viewed as part of excursion groups.

Excursions

The sightseeing tour "Palace of the Kings - Palace of Children" includes a visit to the Winter Garden, ceremonial halls, the oak study of Alexander III and the library, as well as the Room of Fairy Tales, decorated, like a box, with paintings by Palekh masters. Experienced guides will tell you about the history and modern life of the palace.

The excursion for schoolchildren lasts 1 hour, and for adults - 1,5 hours.

Anichkov Palace

Prior registration for the excursion is not required, however, each excursion stream can accommodate no more than 25 people.

For group tours, prior registration and coordination of the day and time is required by e-mail: anichkovmuz@mail.ru or by phone: 8 (812) 310-93-80.

Excursion service cost for groups (up to 25 people)

Tickets can be purchased at the box office of the main building of the palace, that is, in the first building to the right of the entrance to the complex.

Exhibitions

In the Anichkov Palace there is an exhibition "Living Art of Palekh" (included in the sightseeing tour).

Anichkov Palace

How to get to Anichkov Palace

It is convenient to get to the palace by metro, reaching the Gostiny Dvor station on the green line. Leaving the metro, you need to walk along Nevsky Prospekt towards the Fontanka River. The fare in the St. Petersburg metro is 45 rubles.

You can also get there by bus no. 3, 7, 22, 24, 27, 181, 191 or by trolleybus no. 1, 5, 7, 10, 11, 22, stop “Youth Creativity Palace”. Leaving the transport, you must walk along Nevsky Prospekt to the entrance to the palace.

Anichkov Palace can be reached by tram number 3, stop "Gostiny Dvor". Leaving the tram, you need to walk along Sadovaya Street towards Nevsky Prospect, and then follow the avenue towards the Fontanka River.

Anichkovy Palace can be reached comfortably using taxi applications operating in St. Petersburg (Yandex. Taxi, Gett, Uber, Maxim).

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