Rome - "The Eternal City"

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Rome is the capital of Italy, the administrative center of the province of Rome and the region of Lazio, the ancient capital of the Roman Empire and one of the oldest cities in the world. With the light hand of the poet Tibullus, they began to call it the Eternal City. In one of the elegies, written by the poet on the occasion of the entry of Messalla's son into the priestly college of 15 men, a hymn to the greatness of Rome sounds: "Romulus has not yet laid down those walls of the eternal city where his brother Remus could not settle with him."

The first settlements appeared on the Palatine Hill, then the Capitol and Quirinal hills were settled, later fortresses were built on Celje, Aventina, Esquilina and Viminale.

This is how the “city on seven hills”, the blessed Rome, was created. It is located on the left bank of the Tiber, next to the sea and the Apennine mountain range, which occupies almost all of Italy.

The Capitol Square is located in the center of the Capitol Hill. At the highest point is the Church of Santa Maria d'Aracheli, on the sides of the square there are two palaces of the same architecture - the New Palace and the Palace of the Conservatives. The ensemble is completed by the Senatorial Palace, an imposing massive building with a tower and monumental staircase. The Capitoline Museum was founded in 1471 when Pope Sixtus IV donated his collection of antique statues to the public.

In the New Palace you can see the original statue of Marcus Aurelius (in the center of the square there is a copy of it), busts of Roman emperors, sculptures: "Drunken Faun", "Dying Gaul", "Wounded Amazon". In the Palace of the Conservatives, there is the symbol of the city of Rome - the bronze Capitoline she-wolf.

The central square of ancient Rome, located between three hills: Palatine, Capitol and Esquiline, was called the forum. From it, other main streets of the city were built up, which led to the Temple of Jupiter Capitoline. There were two more squares, one of them was the "Bull Forum" - a livestock market, on the other - a vegetable market.

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The Roman Forum, with all the adjacent buildings, was the center of the city's social life. Then Christians began to erect temples in its place: the Church of St. Bacchus and St. Sergius, the Church of St. Adrian and the Church of St. Cosmas and Damian.

During the early Roman period, the construction of the imperial forums began, which lasted for about 150 years. The Imperial Forums include a whole ensemble of monuments: Forum of Caesar, Forum of Augustus, Forum of Nerva and Forum of Trajan.

Forum Caesar and today almost all is hidden underground. It is a rectangular square surrounded on three sides by an arched gallery, in the center - the remains of the Temple of Venus.

The Forum of Augustus was built by order of Emperor Octavian Augustus from Carrara marble, in the center was a statue of Mars, around which were placed the statues of Venus and Caesar. The forum was intended to glorify the emperor. Only a part of the building has survived to this day: several columns of the temple and a staircase.

At the Forum of Nerva there was a temple dedicated to Minerva, which was destroyed in 1606 by order of Pope Paul V for the construction of the fountain and the Borge chapel. Two granite columns, part of the wall and a relief depicting the goddess have survived to this day. Most of the forum is also buried underground.

Trajan's Forum consisted of numerous covered colonnades measuring 200x120 m with semicircular niches for seating. There was also Trajan's market, behind which was the Ulpia Basilica, named after the Emperor Mark Ulpius Trajan.

There are various assumptions why the Flavian amphitheater subsequently began to be called by the Colosseum, most likely, this was due to the enormity of its size. The stands could accommodate 73 spectators. The amphitheater was laid out in the form of an ellipse, under the wooden arena there were premises for services that ensured the holding of competitions, and cages with animals. The audience sat on the marble steps. The Colosseum hosted gladiator fights and battles with wild animals.

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Roman Pantheon was built in 27-25 BC. NS. commander Mark Agrippa. The structure is a domed rotunda with a rectangular portico and pediment, supported by 14-meter columns. The pagan temple on November 1, 609 was consecrated as the Christian church of St. Mary and the Martyrs, because the Byzantine emperor Phoca gave it to Pope Boniface IV.

Services were held in the temple, under the dome, on the ceremonial altar, sacrificial animals were burned. One of the striking features of the Pantheon is the pillar of light that appears at noon through a hole in the roof and dazzles the mind with its magical appearance and gigantic size.

The center of life in Italy and Rome - Plaza de España with a grandiose Spanish Steps in baroque style and fountain of Barcacciaby Pietro Bernini. The temple rises here Trinita dei Monti, the Embassy of Spain, an old English tea house and the house-museum of the English poet John Keats are located.